Circulation is a technology used in cardiovascular surgeries, very common in aortic disorders, heart and/or lung transplants and liver transplants. It consists of leaving the patient with an artificial basis of life, in which they occur through a device with disposable devices, which can supply the functions of the heart, kidneys and lungs, bringing oxygen and pumping blood throughout the individual’s body . The objective Carry out a systematic review on heart disease and cardiopulmonary bypass, related to immunological factors. Methods were used that included a systematic review, where Health Sciences descriptors ( DeCS ) were used as a research tool in the databases PubMed /MEDLINE, Scientific Electronic Library Online – SciELO and Google Scholar. Articles in Portuguese were selected through a search strategy, 1,850 articles were found, being filtered through an association of descriptors, the summaries were read and then the full articles, where, based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria 17 scientific articles were obtained. It is concluded that, according to the clinical criteria established in this study, the most common heart diseases are myocardial diseases and ischemic heart disease. Patients who use extracorporeal circulation for a long time can trigger a systemic inflammatory process that can lead to risks or problems in the individual’s life. Extracorporeal circulation is a category of controlled circulation, it is associated with immunological factors through the triggering of a wave of activation of cells responsible for the immune system, releasing inflammatory mediators.
Keywords: Immunological factors; Extracorporeal circulation; Heart surgeries.