Arash Soltani Borchaloee

Although the urinary tract (UT) of healthy individuals was traditionally considered sterile, we now know that bacteria persist in the UT of healthy humans. Moreover, bacteriophages are abundant in healthy human TU and probably play a role in modulating the diversity and relative abundance of bacteria within the community. Understanding the urinary microbiota of healthy people has helped us understand the symptoms and diseases of UT in humans. Pseudomonas aeroginosa and Escherichia coli are ubiquitous microorganisms, which is present in diverse environmental. P. aeruginosa and E.coli an increasingly problematic drug-resistant bacterium in today’s world. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) and Pseudomonas aeroginosa express a multitude of virulence factors, which enable the bacteria to establish UTI.

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