Karla J. Lehmann

This review/analysis gives a first impression of numerous adverse events related to Covid-19 vaccination, which have received little attention to date, are often unexplained, but are nevertheless very distressing. Frequently observed organ-related ADRs after Covid-19 vaccination were such of the nervous system, musculoskeletal system, gastrointestinal tract, and skin.

The involvement of almost all organs in the side effect spectrum of Covid-19 vaccines demonstrates their systemic efficacy. As shown by the ADRs occurrence even after numerous days to weeks, the duration of spike production obviously lasts longer than claimed.

The key role is played by the interaction between the spike subunit S1 and the membrane-bound enzyme ACE2, the receptor for SARS-CoV. Downregulation of ACE2 by spikes and following activation of RAAS can lead to numerous clinically relevant disorders, such as vasoconstriction, tissue ischemia, induction of proliferative processes, increased oxidative stress, inflammation, or coagulation disorders, as previously shown for cardiovascular reactions. It is proposed to use the collective term “SPAS” (in German: Spike ausgelöste Störungen) – spike induced disturbances for side effects based on this mode of action.

The common mode of action and only slightly different frequencies of adverse events and fatal outcomes do not indicate any principal differences in adverse event profiles of the individual spike-based Covid-19 vaccines. A class-specific side effect profile can be assumed.

Knowledge and awareness of the comprehensive adverse event profile of the novel Covid-19 vaccines and their potential dangerousness may improve vaccine safety.

Keywords : Adverse reactions; cardiovascular system; class specific action; common mode of action; gastrointestinal system; musculoskeletal system; nervous system; skin; spike/ACE2-interaction; spike-based Covid-19 vaccination.

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