An artificial nose (e-nose) is a multipotential electronic device, based on various sensors with the ability to recognize different odours, in the same way that the human olfactory sense does. An updated e-nose system will allow us to detect different oncological and/or degenerative diseases of the human being that today are diagnosed late. Other options would include providing specific information on the quality and condition of food, analysing and detecting the degree of environmental pollution, analysing perfumes and their essences, determining the composition and characteristics of certain beverages such as wine, tea, oil, cocoa and other products. The application of new technologies, such as artificial intelligence and nanotechnology, make it easier to distinguish many different odours in less time. In this paper, we have made a current investigation of the different types of e-nose existing today.
Currently nanotechnology, artificial intelligence and computer science are tools that have revolutionary possibilities for the construction of a new e-nose device and progress over the current scopes. If we manage to unite the advantages provided by each of these new technologies that we have mentioned, we will be able to build a very useful device applicable in various fields such as health, food and beverage industry, perfumes and environment. Therefore, the objectives we have in this study are the following:
- To learn where artificial nose technology stands and what has been developed so far. Based on these findings, ask ourselves the following question: Is it possible to achieve an effective functioning or is it an unreachable project?
- To compile the majority of scientific articles published mainly in the last 10 years with examples of the use that has been made of artificial noses in the measurement of volatile compounds in the different fields mentioned.
- In the same way to gather the information published in the last years in relation to the usefulness, existence in the market and purposes of equipment that can measure the olfaction in the human being, what we will call the Smell-o-meter or olfactometer for human use.
In the first part of this research we will gather most of the information existing so far in the international bibliography, as well as the achievements and utilities obtained to date. Following we will analyse all the new concepts related to e-nose devices that exist on sensors, gas chromatography, nanotechnology application, electronic engineering, materials and techniques as preliminary ideas for the development of the devices.