Advances in the Earth and Environmental Science (ISSN 2766-2624) is open access, peer-reviewed, scholarly journal. That focuses on the aspects of advancement and discoveries in the Earth, health care sectors, industrial sectors, environment policies, and environmental science.
The journal attempts to include various research practices of environmental science, natural energy-yielding techniques, advancements in agriculture, for the progress of humankind. The journal is an excellent study platform for various NGOs, environmentalists, and activists engaged in Earth and environmental science.
The study on the advances of Earth and environmental science discusses the structure and composition of modern Earth, global evolution of the Earth, Earth’s core separation process, earth energetics, Earth’s tectonic activities, Radioactive elements, carbon footprint, tidal interaction, mantel convention and green energy.
Structure and compositions of Earth
Earth revolves around the sun in orbit near-circular, at the average distance of 149.6 million kilometres. The Earth and the other planets revolve around the sun in a counter-clockwise direction when viewed from the North pole of the celestial sphere. The time of direct axial revolution of Earth is 24 hours, 56 minutes, and 4.1 seconds or 8.616×104 seconds. The revolution period of Earth is 365.24 solar days or 3.147×107 s, and the average velocity of the earth’ motion on its orbit is 29.765 km/s.
The shape of the Earth is described as a geoid, which signifies the equipotential gravity surface. The average radius of the Earth is 6371 km, and the mass of Earth is 5.977×1027 g. The geoid concedes with the smooth water surface of the world ocean, outside the continents. The geoid is deviated from the ellipsoid due to the non-uniform mass distribution within the Earth through a dynamic process generating the Earth’s lithospheric shell and mantle.
Global evolution of Earth
According to the modern cosmogonic, Earth is formed due to the accretion of solid particles in the dust-gas protoplanetary cloud. The supernova explosions accompanied by the shock waves in the interstellar medium hits the gas-dust cloud, which drastically increases the pressure and matter on the wave-front. That gradually forms a giant gas clot, the proto sun.
Earth’s energetics are the energy determining the heat regime and supporting tectonics activity on the Earth. The study on Earth’s energetics analyzes the energy balance of the Earth, which helps to determine the tectonic activity of the Earth. The heat density, residual silicate mantle, the hydrosphere, the light-aluminosilicate crust, and iron-oxide core are some of the Earth’s energetics.
The heat energy on the Earth is caused due to the decay of radioactive elements. The Earth contains the 28 naturally occurring radioactive chemical elements, which consists of 34 radionuclides. The radioactive decay also referred to as nuclear decay, nuclear disintegration, or radioactivity. It is the process where the unstable atomic nucleus loses energy by the radiation. The beta decay, gamma decay, and alpha decay are the three common types of radioactive decay.
Tidal interaction is an effect due to the tidal forces between an orbiting natural satellite and the primary planet. The interaction causes a gradual recession of a moon in a prograde orbit away from the corresponding and primary slowdown. The tidal deceleration occurs for the satellites that have an orbital period shorter than the initial rotation period.
A carbon footprint is a total greenhouse gas emission generated by organizations, individuals, events, products, or services. It is expressed as carbon dioxide equivalent. The burning of fossil fuels, production-consumption of food, manufacturing goods, land clearance, and development of other public related services, emits greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide and methane.
Mantel convention is a slow creeping motion of Earth’s solid silicate mantle, due to the convection currents carrying heat from the Earth’s interior surface. The tectonic plates are created or consumed by the plated boundaries continuously. The tectonic plates are the divided parts of the lithosphere. The accretion occurs as the mantle is further added to the growing edges of plates related to seafloor spreading. The mantle cools down due to the convection and conduction of heat. The mantel conventions cause the tectonic plates to move around the surface of Earth. That results in gravitational sorting of lighter silicate minerals to the mantle and more massive molten nickel, iron, and sulphides to the core.
green energy is non-polluting renewable energy that is environmental-friendly. The sunlight, rain, wind, geothermal heat, and algae are the sources of green energy. It is naturally replenished energy, which can replace the need for fossil fuels.
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