Article / Short Communication
1Department of Law, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi 6205,Bangladesh
Department of Law
University of Rajshahi
6 January 2021 ; 20 January 2021
The CITES (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) is an international agreement between governments. Its aim is to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants doesn’t threaten their survival. The resolution was approved in 1963 with a draft at a meeting of members of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).
The Convention entered into force on 1 July 1975. Bangladesh ratified the convention in November 1981. The parties state of the CITES has been binding towards it. It regulates the international trade in specimens of selected species to a specific mechanism. All import, export, re-export, and introduction from the sea of species covered by the Convention have to be authorized through a licensing system. Each State party to the Convention is required to delegate one or more Management Authorities responsible of controlling that licensing system. The term ‘‘import’’ means to land on, bring into, or introduce into or attempt to land on, bring into, or introduce into, anywhere subject to the jurisdiction of the States. Moreover, it included whether or not such landing, bringing, or introduction constitutes an importation within the meaning of the customs laws of the States.
Throughout the world, habitats are being devastated at an alarming rate, locating many wildlife species in threat of extinction. Threatened and endangered wildlife live around the globe and we’re likely to search out some in our own backyard. Critically Endangered species are Cross River Gorilla, Black Rhino, Orangutan, Hawksbill Turtle, Amur Leopard etc.. Some are endangered listed as like Blue Whale, Asian Elephant, Chimpanzee, Galápagos Penguin, Ganges River Dolphin, Green Turtle, Indus River Dolphin, Red Panda, Sea Lions, Whale Shark. Vulnerable species are Gaint Panda, Dugong, Black Spider Monkey, Hippopotamus, Polar Bear etc. and some are near threatened or least concern.
To defend endangered animals, think both globally and locally. Be familiar with the wild fauna and flora in their many attractive and various forms are an irreplaceable part of the natural systems of the earth which must be protected for this and therefore the generation to come back. We’d like to watch out of the ever-growing value of wild fauna and flora from aesthetic, scientific, cultural, recreational, and economic points of view. We the people and therefore the State mechanism should be the best protectors of their own wild fauna and flora. In this regard, international co-operation is crucial for the protection of certain species of wild fauna and flora against over-exploitation through international trade. Bangladesh Government is incredibly much convinced on taking appropriate measures to the current end.
If any dispute arises between two or more Parties with relevancy to the interpretation or function of the provisions of the present Convention shall be subject to negotiation between the parties involved within the dispute. If the dispute cannot be resolved in accordance with paragraph 1 of this Article, the Parties may, by mutual consent, submit the dispute to arbitration, in particular that of the Permanent Court of Arbitration at The Hague, and the Parties submitting the dispute shall be bound by the arbitral decision.
The purpose of the Endangered Species Act in US is defined as following,
- To provide ecosystems upon which endangered and threatened species depend may be conserved.
- To provide a program for the conservation of such species as declared by the Endangered Species Act.
The Endangered Species Act was enacted to provide for the conservation of domestic and endangered species of wildlife through domestic action and through cooperation with state endangered species conservation programs consistent with the domestic law. Moreover, the US Congress in enacting the Endangered Species Act, intended endangered species to be afforded the highest of priorities because the question of the existence of endangered species threatens is great issues. The objective of the Endangered Species Act is to enable listed species not merely to survive but to recover from their endangered or threatened status.
In Bangladesh, with the line of international framework it makes illegal to import into or export from Bangladesh any listed species of fish or wildlife; possess, sell, deliver, carry, transport, or ship any listed species taken in violation; deliver, receive, carry, transport, or ship any listed species in interstate or foreign commerce, or by any means whatsoever in the course of commercial activity; sell or offer for sale in interstate or foreign commerce any listed species; or, violate any regulation promulgated pursuant to the authority. It is unlawful for any person to make or submit any false record, account, or any false identification of, any fish, wildlife, or plant which intended to be imported, exported, transported, sold, purchased, or received from any foreign country; or transported in interstate or foreign commerce.
The Management Authorities in Bangladesh are – Chief Conservator of Forest, Forest Department, Ministry of Environment and Forest; Chief Controller of Import and Export, Ministry of Commerce. The Enforcement Authority in Bangladesh is the Chief Conservator of Forest, Forest Department, Ministry of Environment and Forest. The Scientific Authority in Bangladesh is the Bangladesh Wild Life Advisory Board, Ministry of Environment and Forest.
Though enforcement mechanisms aren’t enough rather more awareness is required within the rural areas and our civil organization groups for the important conservation issues. Nonetheless, the hopeful thing is young generations are coming forward.
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