This paper attempts to identify major natural hazards and disaster incidents damage and losses in Nepal. Using participatory and geographical diversity approach and for collecting information, multi-criteria decision making methods and analytical hierarchic process to identify the hazard prone area with type and intensity and location -specific innovative practices and their legitimization for integrating local and skills knowledge into mainstream development policy , science and technology through educational assessment to incorporate local knowledge as live science for disaster management, climate change adaptation and sustainable livelihood improvement . Findings of the study reveal that their varieties of natural hazards, such as landslides, flood/inundation, droughts, soil erosion, earthquakes, thunderstorm/lightening and fire which are exacerbated by environmental degradation processes. There are location specific local practices for resources conservation, utilization and disaster management for the well-being of communities before, during and after disasters. Such practices passed on from one generation to the next without integrating into mainstream development strategies, disaster policy and science. Ecology knowledge and local skills and materials for hazard prevention and mitigation have the important role to mitigate the hazards and ensure the sustainability for community life style. Further, study forwarded an action-oriented model i.e. political-ecological framework for the environmental resource conservation, disaster management and climate change adaptation practice in mostly vulnerable locations of Nepal. Moreover, measures are suggested to enhance the community capacity for managing their livelihood resources and disaster at the community level with proper integration of local knowledge with science and mainstream development policy.
Disaster Management in Nepalese Context: An Ecological Perspective